Advantages and disadvantages of thermoluminescence dating
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This has been explained by different models based on the competition of the radiative datlng with transitions into non-radiative centers either during the excitation or during the heating or both. Of course, at high doses, sublinear dose dependence always occurs, Advatages the TL intensity goes toward saturation. Dose-rate thermoluminecence. Although we usually consider the total dose applied to the sample in hand, it has been found that in certain cases, the measured TL is a function of the dose rate. Thus, applying a given dose at a small rate for a long period anc time may result in a different amount of emitted TL than when the same dose is applied at a high themroluminescence during a short period of time .
A theoretical-numerical account explaining the effect has recently been given , based on the fundamental understanding of the traps and centers in the sample in hand, and the transitions between them. More recently, the use of optically stimulated luminescence OSL for dosimetry as well as archaeological and disadgantages dating has become very popular. This began with the pioneering work by Huntley et al. There is no need to heat the sample, thus avoiding the blackbody radiation occurring at relatively high temperatures. Also, possible thermal quenching of luminescence is avoided, and the sensitization effect taking place in TL is significantly less likely to occur in OSL.
In nearly all the reports on OSL, it is assumed and sometimes shown see e. McKeever and Akselrod  that the initial dose dependence is linear, followed by an approach to saturation. There are, however, some reports in the literature on superlinear dose dependence of OSL. In the study of OSL of quartz and mixed feldspars from sediments, Godfrey-Smith  found linear dependence on the dose of the unheated samples. Roberts et al. They explained this using a multiple level model. Banerjee  also observed superlinearity in annealed quartz and explained it by adopting the previous models of competition employed for the explanation of superlinear dose dependence of TL.
Chen and Leung  studied theoretically the dose dependence and dose-rate dependence of OSL. They showed that there is a significant difference between the behavior of the area under the decaying OSL signal and the OSL response to a short stimulating pulse. In the simplest model of one trapping state and one kind of recombination center, the former is linear with the dose whereas the latter is superlinear. Also, it has been shown numerically that for short pulse OSL, and assuming this simplest possible one trap-one center model, a dose-rate effect can be expected.
These points will be elaborated upon below. The possibility, however, of having non-linear effects in the very basic processes described below may have some relevance even in the case of heavy particle bombardment where the excitation is mainly performed by secondary and tertiary electrons. The basic model describing superlinear dose dependence has to do with competing levels. These may be either non-radiative competing centers or disconnected competing traps. The models involve either competition during the excitation stage or during the heating stage or both. These models will be briefly described here. The first model has to do with competition during excitation [16,17].
A schematic energy model of the levels in the forbidden gap of the thermoluminescent model is shown in Figure 1.
Advantagds energy level scheme for the model of two competing traps and one recombination center. In this model, it is assumed that the measured TL is proportional to the filling of the active trap N1 og with instantaneous occupancy n1 m Intuitively speaking, let us assume that the trapping probability coefficient A2 m3s-1 into the competitor is larger than that into the active Advaantages A1 m3s At low doses, both n1 thermoluminescencr n2 grow linearly. The capacity of the competitor N2, however, is relatively small and therefore, Advzntages higher doses n2 approaches saturation. More electrons are ddating available to n1 and therefore, n1 is being filled faster.
When n2 is thermoluminsscence saturated, n1 grows linearly but at a faster rate than at the low dose range. The intermediate dose range is of interest; when n2 approaches saturation, n1 is in the range of transition from small slope linearity to high slope linearity. In this range, the TL intensity is thus necessarily superlinear with the dose. Chen and Bowman  used some conventional simplifying assumptions and found an approximate expression which demonstrated the initial linear dose dependence, followed by superlinearity which, in turn, was followed by a second linear range and an approach to saturation.
An alternative model of competition during heating can be intuitively explained as follows. Suppose a certain TL peak is related to a trap with initial concentration n1o and a center with an initial concentration mo. Normally, one would expect the TL signal measured either by the maximum intensity Imax or the area under the glow peak S to be proportional to the smaller of the two, min n1o, mo see e. In other words, S 2o 3 Contents should be proportional to n1o or mo, depending on whether the trap or center is depleted first. What are limitations inherent in Chaotic signals the growth rings on log ratio. Ability to the categories, field: Can contain a variety of ensuring.
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