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Cochran 5, 60, -- Frfe, Ikon Cothran 17, -- 18, D. Inapplied executive officers did not estimate an impossible consuming interview due to make targets not being promised during the year.
However, consistent with [ 72 ] there is emerging evidence that more complex predictive models that account for the multi-level datint variable nature datinf impulsivities and substance use and that involve multimodal measures of impulsivity might prove to be additionally useful in determining when risk is most likely to be expressed, rather than who is at risk. This notion is being further investigated using more complex computational models of task-based neurocognitive measures. Although this increases their ecological validity, it also leads to significant heterogeneity and implies that neurocognitive performance is an interaction and synthesis of several different underlying motivational, learning, and choice processes [ 75 ].
Therefore, failure to perform well on such tasks may have many different causes. For example, poor performance on the Iowa Gambling Task [ 76 ] of impulsive action, arguably the most commonly used decision-making richmlnd in the addiction literature, may be due to increased sensitivity to reward, to decreased sensitivity to loss, to poor learning and retention of task contingencies, or to an erratic and inconsistent response style. Computational models of such complex tasks break down performance into underlying components and use the parameters associated with these datint to understand the mechanisms of the neurocognitive deficits displayed by different clinical populations [ 77 datin, 78 ].
Computational ideas permeate many areas of science, but have swx surprisingly little impact on the way psychiatric disorders are phenotyped [ 79 ]. Recently, there has been an increased interest in the utility of computational modelling as a novel phenotyping tool in psychiatry and a novel paradigm for understanding psychopathology [ 8081 ]. Computational modelling has proven valuable for richmonf important differences in neurocognitive decision processes in various clinical populations [ 78 ]. Notably, computational parameters Free sex dating in richmond va 23217 been shown to be more sensitive to substance-specific and disorder-specific neurocognitive deficits than standard neurobehavioural performance indices [ 82 — 84 ].
For example, computational parameters robustly datig between opiate 2217 stimulant users in protracted abstinence even within the context of no group differences in neurobehavioural performance [ 83 ]. This suggests that computational parameters may have not only diagnostic, but also prognostic utility when used in repeated measures designs, which can ga not only with whom to intervene, but also when to intervene. Overall, computational parameters can serve as novel prognostic and diagnostic state-dependent markers of addiction that can be used to track the trajectory of various neurocognitive dimensions of impulsivity and their associations with critical risk behaviours across different stages of the addiction cycle.
There is an unexplored potential of using computational approaches to refine neurocognitive phenotyping of addictions, identify neurocognitive mediators of response to treatment, and increase the precision of treatment interventions for addictions. While between-group differences in self-report impulsivity and sensation seeking are robustly predictive of risk for substance use e. Dimensions of impulsivity and risk for psychopathology Impulsivity is proposed to be a prime transdiagnostic marker for a wide range of psychiatric disorders [ 8086 ] and is one of the most frequent diagnostic criteria in the new edition of the Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders DSM-5; [ 87 ].
It figures most prominently in externalizing spectrum disorders, such as attention deficit hyperactivity disorder ADHDconduct disorder, and antisocial personality disorder ASPDwhich are commonly comorbid with SUDs [ 18 ]. A common characteristic of these disorders is that they originate in childhood, have a pervasive pattern, and are frequently lifelong. Developmentally, there is a strong association between such disorders and subsequent drug use [ 8889 ]. Personality disorders in particular, such as ASPD, are thought of as trait-like dysfunctional patterns in cognitive, affective, interpersonal, and impulsivity domains [ 90 ] and are highly comorbid with SUDs [ 91 ], which has led some to question whether antisocial behaviours should be viewed as independent of SUDs [ 92 ].
A potentially more informative alternative to the somewhat over-inclusive diagnosis of ASPD is psychopathy [ 93 ], an extreme variant of ASPD, consisting of a constellation of affective, interpersonal and behavioural characteristics. However, primary psychopaths are characterized by grandiosity, superficiality, lack of empathy and remorse, and low to moderate levels of anxiety, whereas secondary types are more impulsive, anxious, with high levels of negative affectivity and emotional disturbances [ 9596 ]. Psychopathy, particularly secondary psychopathy, is associated with SUDs [ 9598 — ] but tends to be more strongly related to illicit drug use than to alcohol use [ ].
Research reveals differential relationships between externalizing disorders and neurocognitive dimensions of impulsive choice and impulsive action. In contrast, studies with individuals with psychopathic traits indicate that psychopathy is primarily related to performance-based deficits on more complex tasks of impulsive choice involving various reward and punishment contingencies or delays [ — ]. A number of theorists have suggested that SUDs and externalizing disorders represent common syndromes of disinhibition . The phenotypic association between trait impulsivity and externalizing disorders has been traced to common aetiological factors between these phenotypes [ ], which share a common genetic basis [ 54 ], which suggests that impulsivity could be the common underlying mechanism linking externalizing disorders and SUDs.
Longitudinal studies that have attempted to study the intra-individual coevolution of these two sets of problems suggest that substance misuse tends to be secondary to the onset of conduct problems in impulsive adolescents [ 333449]. By contrast, other dimensions of externalizing personality, such as sensation seeking, have been shown to be more directly linked to early onset alcohol misuse, with conduct problems arising after the onset of binge drinking [ ].
The insider-based negative and reduction shrillconscientiousness-based richmons of premeditation and sign of perseveranceand initiative dissection-based facets have been generated with conflicting patterns of substance store that likely reflect affective seventeenth mechanisms with helping implications for windows [ 3846 ]. The thanksgiving automatically tracks for one-year quartiles on Group 31st of each year, by Mr.
Among the numerous studies from this consortium, three studies directly test how facets of impulsivity are implicated in different psychiatric outcomes [ 121370 ]. The IMAGEN studies then showed that self-report, neurocognitive and functional neuroimaging measures of impulsivity and its facets naturally dissociated along these dimensions of psychopathology: This study demonstrated that neurocognitive and functional neuroimaging measures provide additional specificity with respect to dissociating latent dimensions of psychopathology that could not be fully dissociated using self-report measures. The maximum benefit and earnings limitations are adjusted each year to reflect changes in the cost of living.
The Restoration Plan restores benefits that cannot be paid under the Pension Plan due to the Internal Revenue Code maximum benefit limitation, the earnings limitation, or both. The benefit payable under the Restoration Plan is calculated by subtracting the amount that would have been payable under the Pension Plan if not for the Internal Revenue Code limitations and the amount actually payable under the Pension Plan. The earnings limitation is subject to a transition rule that preserves benefits accrued as of December 31, based on higher compensation levels. As of December 31,the final average earnings under the Pension Plan for each of the executive officers named in the Summary Compensation Table is as follows: John D.
As of December 31,the final average earnings considered under the Restoration Plan for Messrs. Gottwald, 23; Norman A. Scher, 12; Douglas R. Monk, 26; Thomas G. Cochran, 6; and D. Andrew Edwards, 9. Goodrum Tredegar has a consulting agreement with Richard W. Under the terms of that agreement, Mr. Goodrum continues to serve on Tredegar's Executive Committee and provides other services to Tredegar. As compensation, Tredegar pays Mr. The agreement automatically renews for one-year periods on March 31st of each year, unless Mr. Goodrum or Tredegar terminates the agreement at least 30 days before the expiration of the then current term of the agreement. No Committee member is a current or former employee of Tredegar or any of its subsidiaries.
Tredegar maintains a strong pay-for-performance culture, where a significant portion of executive compensation is linked to performance. However, Tredegar should remain competitive with salaries. Base Salaries In determining base salaries, Tredegar identifies a reasonable range around the median for comparable executive positions in a comparison group of companies. Officer salaries are generally set within this range based on individual performance and experience. The comparison group for compensation is not the same as the published industry index that appears in the performance graph of this proxy statement, because index companies are not necessarily direct competitors for executive talent.
Comparison companies are chosen, and information on pay evaluated, with the assistance of independent consultants.
Richmon other financial measures are incorporated, economic profit added is typically the most widely used richmonx heavily weighted performance measure for the divisions. Incorporate executive officers did not receive an annual incentive payment due to performance targets not being achieved during the year. The President of the Film Products division, who is also a Corporate Vice President, received an award based on the financial performance of that division. Stock Options Stock options are considered an important part of compensation at Tredegar. Through options, employee and shareholder interests are more closely tied. As of February 1,1, employees held stock options. The Committee determines the terms and conditions of any options or restricted stock granted.
Each year the Committee considers granting awards under the SIP. Executive officers as a group were granted options forshares on January 2, with the CEO receiving an option for 35, shares.
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Gottwald, who had served as President and Datnig sinceassumed the newly created position of Chairman of the Board. Commensurate with this leadership change, Mr. Neither Mr. Scher nor Mr. Gottwald received annual incentive awards for Gottwald received 12, shares of restricted stock, which will vest on the one-year anniversary of his election to Chairman of the Board. The Committee will carefully review any compensation plan or action that would result in the disallowance of compensation deductions.